Most of the non-transfusion-medicine physicians with whom I have worked have had only limited training in placing component or hospital blood bank orders. In previous posts I have discussed this and suggested that all physicians who may possibly order blood bank tests or blood components should have a training and documented competence on a periodic basis. Only a very few physicians, mainly hematologists and some organ transplant physicians, have placed reliable orders.
Before we had a blood bank computer system, we received orders on a manual paper requisition. If there were errors, my technical staff and I corrected the order. Any changes were made by me in my capacity as the blood bank medical director. The ordering physicians and I had good relations and they had no problem with this—in fact, many were afraid of the blood bank and felt happy to be relieved of the responsibility.
In the current software era, what happens depends on how the order is placed. Can the technical staff and I correct the order directly or must we each and every time contact the physician to revise his/her order? Do my staff have to cancel each erroneous order and wait for the corrected order? This could slow down the work process and prevent release of blood components in a timely manner.
Should the non-blood bank physician be allowed to order our complicated esoteric transfusion tests directly—e.g. ordering extended antigen typings or antibody identifications or elutions? What if they order something unnecessary or inappropriate?
At a recent hospital position as Division Head of Transfusion Medicine, I discovered that the Hospital Information System HIS was very slow for all blood bank orders. The physicians complained, I would allow them to bypass the HIS and use the manual backup system in critical situations. If we had been forced to cancel the order and have the physician reorder, this would have greatly disrupted the work process.
We did not use the HIS at all in Transfusion Medicine. We had patient and donor modules in the dedicated blood bank system Medinfo. We had a limited ordering interface from the HIS to Medinfo for blood components and some basic testing (e.g. ABO/D typing, DAT, type and screen/group and save, cord blood testing, and transfusion reaction workups). All work was done in the dedicated blood bank system.
All components were leukodepleted to < 1E6, all platelet and plasma were Mirasol pathogen-inactivated, all platelets were in platelet additive solution PAS.
The doctors did not order the specific blood component, rather they indicated a preference, e.g.
- Packed RBCs
- Platelets (adult dose of 2.4 E11)
The following appeared as an order comment in the blood bank system:
- The specific number or amount of the each component type
- Preferences for pooled vs. apheresis platelets, washed RBCs, irradiated RBCs.
The blood bank staff could review the doctor’s request and order in Medinfo as per our internal protocols under my responsibility. In effect, I was modifying the orders when needed just as I had done under our manual system. This included type, modification, and quantity. Yet now, I did not have to change any orders since the doctors had only indicated preferences.
For blood bank testing orders, we had our own internal algorithms for the workups. The doctors could not order antibody identifications, elutions, or any antigen typings other than ABO/D. They latter were triggered by the screening test results.
This system allowed us to avoid cancellations due to physician errors. I was very comfortable taking the responsibility to alter the orders for best patient care. If a physician did not agree with our algorithms, they could discuss the issue with one of the transfusion physicians, or ultimately appeal to me. I was fortunate that there were no legal issues with this approach where I practiced.
In summary, my recommendations are:
- Have the doctors order a preference for the type of blood component. They still order the quantity and can request modifications such as washing or irradiating or apheresis-derived or buffy coat pool platelets. The actual allocation is made by blood bank staff under my direction.
- Offer algorithmic based testing. Doctors only order basic testing which triggers reflex algorithms. Most of the test menu is not orderable directly by the physicians (example: an antibody identification is triggered by a non-negative antibody screen.